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Dieta med durante la gravidanza della madre legata al minor rischio di obesità nei bambini

Ricercatori spagnoli hanno scoperto che seguire la dieta mediterranea durante la gravidanza ha prodotto un beneficio ponderale per i bambini nei primi quattro anni di vita.

Gennaio 2, 2019
Di Mary West

Notizie recenti

Uno studio ha scoperto che le donne in gravidanza che aderivano strettamente al dieta mediterranea (Med­Diet) had chil­dren with a 32-per­cent lower risk of obe­sity. Accord­ing to one of the authors, the results indi­cate the con­sump­tion of a healthy diet dur­ing preg­nancy has a pos­i­tive effect on child devel­op­ment.

Questi risultati supportano l'ipotesi che una dieta sana durante la gravidanza possa avere un effetto benefico sullo sviluppo del bambino.- Dora Roma­guera, Researcher

The Med­Diet, some­times called the world’s health­i­est eat­ing plan, includes fruits, veg­eta­bles, whole grains, nuts, legumes, fatty fish and olive oil. While research has linked it to reduced obe­sity and car­dio­vas­cu­lar risk in adults, few stud­ies have explored its effects on chil­dren.

Nel nuovo studio, sci­en­tists exam­ined data on more than 2,700 preg­nant women from var­i­ous regions of Spain who were enrolled in the INMA-Child­hood and Envi­ron­ment cohort. Par­tic­i­pants com­pleted a ques­tion­naire on dietary intake dur­ing their first and third preg­nancy trimesters. Researchers mon­i­tored the weight, height and diet of the women’s off­spring through­out the first four years of life. The team also mea­sured blood pres­sure and con­ducted blood analy­sis to assess the children’s car­dio­vas­cu­lar health at age 4.

Results revealed that preg­nant women who fol­lowed the Med­Diet closely had a 32-per­cent lower risk of hav­ing chil­dren with higher weight com­pared to women who didn’t adhere to the diet. Off­spring of women who didn’t fol­low the eat­ing plan had a larger birth size, and they expe­ri­enced greater body mass index gain dur­ing the early child­hood years.

"Moth­ers with lower adher­ence to the Mediter­ranean diet were younger, con­sumed more calo­ries, and had a higher prob­a­bil­ity of smok­ing and lower edu­ca­tion and social level, as com­pared to those women who did fol­low the diet,” said first author Sílvia Fer­nán­dez, researcher at the Barcelona Insti­tute of Global Health.

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"These results sup­port the hypoth­e­sis that a healthy diet dur­ing preg­nancy can have a ben­e­fi­cial effect for child devel­op­ment,” con­cluded the study coor­di­na­tor Dora Roma­guera. She added that this may be due to "possibili modificazioni epigenetiche che regolano il caridiometabolismo fetale o modelli alimentari condivisi tra madri e bambini, sebbene ciò meriti ulteriori approfondimenti. "

No cor­re­la­tion was found between con­sump­tion of the Med­Diet dur­ing preg­nancy and lower car­dio­vas­cu­lar risk in early child­hood. "The effects on car­diometa­bolic risk could appear later in child­hood,” explained Fer­nán­dez.

In un'intervista con Olive Oil Times, Fer­nán­dez spec­u­lated on the fac­tors in the Med­Diet that may be respon­si­ble for the weight-related ben­e­fit.

"The Med­Diet rep­re­sents a healthy eat­ing pat­tern, and its advan­tage for child devel­op­ment may be due to a com­bi­na­tion of dif­fer­ent fac­tors,” she said. "We do not know the spe­cific under­ly­ing rea­sons, and more research is needed on this topic. The con­tent of fiber due to the high intake of plant foods may play a role. Another ben­e­fi­cial influ­ence is likely the high qual­ity of fat from olive oil, fish and nuts. More­over, adher­ence to this pat­tern decreases the con­sump­tion of unhealthy foods such as refined foods and sodas.”

Lo studio è stato pubblicato in The Jour­nal of Pedi­atrics.





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